Private limited company registration

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A Private Limited Company (PLC) is one of the most popular business structures, especially among small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This business model offers a blend of advantages, including limited liability, perpetual succession, and ease of ownership transfer. This guide will provide you with a detailed overview of the private limited company registration process, its benefits, requirements, and other essential aspects.

What is a Private Limited Company?

A Private Limited Company is a type of privately held business entity. The liability of the shareholders is limited to the number of shares they hold, which means their personal assets are protected if the company faces financial distress. Additionally, the company enjoys a separate legal identity from its owners.

Key Features of a Private Limited Company

  1. Limited Liability: Shareholders’ liability is restricted to the amount they have invested in the company.
  2. Separate Legal Entity: The company is distinct from its owners and can own property, incur debt, and enter into contracts.
  3. Perpetual Succession: The company continues to exist even if the ownership changes due to the death or departure of shareholders.
  4. Restricted Transferability of Shares: Shares can only be transferred with the consent of other shareholders.

Benefits of Registering a Private Limited Company

  1. Credibility: Being registered as a PLC adds credibility and trustworthiness to your business.
  2. Ease of Fundraising: Raising capital through equity becomes easier as investors are more inclined to invest in a structured entity.
  3. Tax Benefits: Private limited companies can avail themselves of various tax exemptions and incentives.
  4. Professional Management: The company can hire skilled professionals for management, leading to better decision-making and efficiency.
  5. Limited Liability Protection: Owners’ personal assets are protected against business liabilities.

Prerequisites for Registration

Before you proceed with the  private limited company registration, ensure you meet the following requirements:

  1. Directors: A minimum of two directors is required, and at least one should be a resident of India.
  2. Shareholders: A minimum of two shareholders is necessary. Directors can also be shareholders.
  3. Name: The company name should be unique and not resemble any existing company name or trademark.
  4. Registered Office Address: A physical address in India where all communications will be sent.

Step-by-Step Registration Process

1. Obtain Digital Signature Certificate (DSC)

The first step in the registration process is to obtain a Digital Signature Certificate for all the proposed directors. This certificate is necessary for signing electronic documents.

2. Apply for Director Identification Number (DIN)

Next, you need to apply for a Director Identification Number for all proposed directors. This can be done by filing Form DIR-3 along with identity and address proof of the directors.

3. Name Approval

Choose a unique name for your company and submit it for approval to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) through the RUN (Reserve Unique Name) service. Ensure the name complies with the naming guidelines.

4. Drafting of MOA and AOA

Prepare the Memorandum of Association (MOA) and Articles of Association (AOA). The MOA defines the scope of activities and objectives of the company, while the AOA lays down the rules and regulations for the company’s internal management.

5. Filing of Forms with MCA

Once the name is approved, and the MOA and AOA are drafted, file the incorporation forms (SPICe+ INC-32, SPICe MOA, and SPICe AOA) along with the required documents to the MCA.

6. Payment of Fees

Pay the prescribed registration fees and stamp duty. The fee structure varies based on the authorized capital of the company.

7. Certificate of Incorporation

After verification of the documents, the Registrar of Companies (ROC) will issue a Certificate of Incorporation, signifying the legal existence of the company.

Post-Registration Requirements

Once your company is incorporated, there are several post-registration compliance requirements:

  1. Pan and TAN: Apply for the company’s Permanent Account Number (PAN) and Tax Deduction and Collection Account Number (TAN).
  2. Opening a Bank Account: Open a bank account in the name of the company for all financial transactions.
  3. Statutory Registers: Maintain statutory registers, including the Register of Members, Register of Directors, etc.
  4. GST Registration: If your turnover exceeds the threshold limit, register for Goods and Services Tax (GST).
  5. Compliance Filings: File annual returns and financial statements with the ROC.

Common Documents Required

  1. Identity Proof: PAN card, passport, or voter ID of all directors and shareholders.
  2. Address Proof: Recent utility bills, bank statements, or Aadhaar card of all directors and shareholders.
  3. Registered Office Proof: Utility bill (not older than two months), and NOC from the property owner.
  4. Photographs: Passport-sized photographs of all directors.

Key Considerations

  1. Authorized Capital: Determine the authorized capital of the company, which is the maximum amount of share capital the company is authorized to issue.
  2. Compliance: Regular compliance with the Companies Act, 2013, and other applicable laws is essential to avoid penalties.
  3. Professional Help: Consider hiring a professional (CA, CS, or lawyer) to assist with the registration process and ongoing compliance.Also read : DSC registration


Registering a Private Limited Company is a strategic decision for many entrepreneurs and businesses due to its numerous advantages. While the registration process involves several steps and compliance requirements, the benefits of limited liability, perpetual succession, and ease of raising capital make it a worthwhile endeavor. By following this guide, you can navigate the registration process with confidence and set a solid foundation for your business’s growth and success.

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